earlyremoval, in the Conservatory, with the Wrench: Exploring Ghidra’s decompiler internals to make automatic P-Code analysis scripts

(The version of Ghidra used in this article is 10.1.2. For the Go string recovery tool release, skip ahead to Ghostrings Release.) Introduction A well-known issue with reverse engineering Go programs is that the lack of null terminators in Go strings makes recovering string definitions from compiled binaries difficult. Within a compiled Go program, many … Continue reading earlyremoval, in the Conservatory, with the Wrench: Exploring Ghidra’s decompiler internals to make automatic P-Code analysis scripts

Tool Release – Ghostrings

Introduction Ghostrings is a collection of Ghidra scripts for recovering string definitions in Go binaries with P-Code analysis. A well-known issue with reverse engineering Go programs is that the lack of null terminators in Go strings makes recovering string definitions from compiled binaries difficult. Within a compiled Go program, many of the constant string values … Continue reading Tool Release – Ghostrings

Remote Code Execution on Western Digital PR4100 NAS (CVE-2022-23121)

This blog post describes an unchecked return value vulnerability found and exploited in September 2021 by Alex Plaskett, Cedric Halbronn and Aaron Adams working at the Exploit Development Group (EDG) of NCC Group. We successfully exploited it at Pwn2Own 2021 competition in November 2021 when targeting the Western Digital PR4100.

Bypassing software update package encryption – extracting the Lexmark MC3224i printer firmware (part 1)

Lexmark encrypts the firmware update packages provided to consumers, making the binary analysis more difficult. With little over a month of research time assigned and few targets to look at, NCC Group decided to remove the flash memory and extract the firmware using a programmer, firmware which we (correctly) assumed would be stored unencrypted. This allowed us to bypass the firmware update package encryption. With the firmware extracted, the binaries could be reverse-engineered to find vulnerabilities that would allow remote code execution.

A Look At Some Real-World Obfuscation Techniques

Among the variety of penetration testing engagements NCC Group delivers, some - often within the gaming industry - require performing the assignment in a blackbox fashion against an obfuscated binary, and the client's priorities revolve more around evaluating the strength of their obfuscation against content protection violations, rather than exercising the application's security boundaries. The … Continue reading A Look At Some Real-World Obfuscation Techniques

Domestic IoT Nightmares: Smart Doorbells

Preface Half way through 2020, UK independent consumer champion Which? magazine reached out to us and asked if we could assist investigating the security of a series of domestic IoT devices and to perform a vulnerability assessment of each device. The assessments included smart plugs and smart/connected doorbells. We also worked on a number of … Continue reading Domestic IoT Nightmares: Smart Doorbells

TA505: A Brief History Of Their Time

Threat Intel Analyst: Antonis Terefos (@Tera0017)Data Scientist: Anne Postma (@A_Postma) 1. Introduction TA505 is a sophisticated and innovative threat actor, with plenty of cybercrime experience, that engages in targeted attacks across multiple sectors and geographies for financial gain. Over time, TA505 evolved from a lesser partner to a mature, self-subsisting and versatile crime operation with … Continue reading TA505: A Brief History Of Their Time

Tool Release – ICPin, an integrity-check and anti-debug detection pintool

by Nicolas Guigo ICPin is an Intel pintool leveraging the framework's JIT mode designed to track a binary's integrity checks. It records all reads and all writes performed by the target executable or dynamically loaded library on its text section and outputs a human readable text file describing each memory access with its type (R|W) … Continue reading Tool Release – ICPin, an integrity-check and anti-debug detection pintool

Turla PNG Dropper is back

This is a short blog post on the PNG Dropper malware that has been developed and used by the Turla Group [1]. The PNG Dropper was first discovered back in August 2017 by Carbon Black researchers. Back in 2017 it was being used to distribute Snake, but recently NCC Group researchers have uncovered samples with … Continue reading Turla PNG Dropper is back