Public Report – Filecoin Bellman and BLS Signatures Cryptographic Review

In May 2020, Protocol Labs engaged NCC Group's Cryptography Services team to conduct a cryptography review of multiple Filecoin code repositories. Filecoin is a decentralized storage and content distribution network developed by Protocol Labs. These repositories implement finite field and group arithmetic, cryptographic pairings, SHA2 via intrinsics, BLS signatures and zk-SNARK operations. Taken together, these … Continue reading Public Report – Filecoin Bellman and BLS Signatures Cryptographic Review

Pairing over BLS12-381, Part 3: Pairing!

This is the last of three code-centric blog posts on pairing based cryptography. Support for these operations in an Ethereum precompiled contract has been proposed [1], and support for a related pairing configuration in precompiled contracts is already in operation [2, 3]. The first post [4] covered modular arithmetic, finite fields, the embedding degree, and … Continue reading Pairing over BLS12-381, Part 3: Pairing!

Pairing over BLS12-381, Part 2: Curves

This is the second of three code-centric blog posts on pairing based cryptography. The first post [1] covered modular arithmetic, finite fields, the embedding degree, and presented an implementation of a 12-degree prime extension field tower. The series will ultimately conclude with a detailed review of the popular BLS12-381 pairing operations found in a variety … Continue reading Pairing over BLS12-381, Part 2: Curves

Pairing over BLS12-381, Part 1: Fields

This is the first of three code-centric blog posts on pairing based cryptography. The series will ultimately conclude with a detailed review of the popular BLS12-381 pairing operations found in a variety of applications such as BLS signatures [1]. Support for these operations in an Ethereum precompiled contract has been proposed [2], and support for … Continue reading Pairing over BLS12-381, Part 1: Fields